Neurodiversity implies that people react differently to the world around them and its impact. People come with different personalities, with different brain functions and different reactions to different situations.
It can be easier to be inclusive of everyone if communities, schools and healthcare facilities recognize and value human differences, looking beyond what might seem like their disability.
It is critical to create a culture that values neurodiversity, acknowledge and celebrate the unique skills and abilities that each person possesses while also supporting their differences and needs.
Dyscalculia is a disorder characterized by difficulties in learning or comprehending arithmetic, including difficulties in understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, doing mathematical computations, and acquiring mathematical information.
It affects people of all ages and capacities.
Dyspraxia is also known as developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD). It is a common disorder that affects movement and co-ordination.
Dyspraxia does not affect a person’s intellectual abilities. It can impact balance, athletics, and driving skills. Fine motor abilities, including writing or handling small objects, might be affected by dyspraxia.
Symptoms can vary and evolve over time, and affected persons may have trouble managing time, socializing and doing daily tasks. Dyspraxics can be very creative people.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
The autism spectrum refers to a group of neurological conditions that are typically characterized by challenges in social interaction and communication, repetitive activities, strong interests, and a typical reactions to sensory input. Any one individual with autism is affected differently and is likely to display some, but not all, of the symptoms to varying degrees.
Autistic people may have high support needs. They may be non-speaking, delayed in development, and more likely to present with other co-existing diagnoses, such as intellectual disability Others may have low support needs, and may have more typical speech-language and intellectual skills, but also exhibit peculiar social/conversational skills, narrowly focused interests, and even avoid eye contact.
People with autism can be very direct and honest, detail-oriented, able to spot or make patterns, and have excellent memories.
Acquired Brain Injury
The term "acquired brain injury" (ABI) refers to any form of brain impairment that develops after birth. Acquired brain injury is described as a damage brought on by an infection, sickness, lack of oxygen or a head injury and may cause cognitive, physical, emotional, or behavioral problems that alter functioning permanently or just temporarily.
Making the necessary adjustments in one's life to adapt one's new circumstances after an ABI is a crucial part of healing and rehabilitation.
While the cause and extent of an injury will determine its result in most cases, the level of recovery will also be greatly influenced by the treatment received.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. This condition is usually diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. Affected children may have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors or be hyper-active.
Children usually have trouble focusing and with their behavior, however, unlike neuro typical children, children with ADHD do not just grow out of these behaviors unless there are interventions to help them.
It can be critical for people with ADHD to learn to channel excess energy into productive activities and manage their pace. In many cases, affected persons find that physical movement helps them think better and work at their best.
ADHD interventions vary and usually involve combining medications, counseling, and lifestyle changes.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Down syndrome (sometimes called Down’s syndrome) is a condition in which a child is born with an extra copy of their 21st chromosome — hence its other name, trisomy 21. It is usually associated with physical growth delays, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features.
Many of the disabilities are lifelong, and they can also shorten life expectancy. However, people with Down syndrome can live healthy and fulfilling lives. Recent medical advances, as well as cultural and institutional support for people with Down syndrome and their families, provides many opportunities to help overcome the challenges of this condition.
Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. CP is the most common motor disability in childhood. Signs and symptoms vary among people and over time, but include poor coordination, stiff and or weak muscles and tremors. There may be problems with sensation, vision, hearing and speaking. Often, babies with cerebral palsy do not roll over, sit, crawl or walk as early as other children of their age. Other symptoms include seizures and problems with thinking or reasoning.
There is no known cure for CP, but supportive treatments, medication and surgery may help many individuals. This may include physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy. Often, external braces and other assistive technology are helpful. Some affected children can achieve near normal adult lives with appropriate treatment.
Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a nervous system disorder. TS results in "tics" (sudden movements and/or vocalizations). People with tics are unable to stop their bodies from doing these movements. For instance, a person may continue to blink repeatedly.
Tics change in nature, frequency, location, and intensity throughout time. The earliest symptoms often appear between the ages of five and ten, typically in the head and neck region, and may spread to the trunk, arms, and legs. Generally, motor tics occur before vocal tics, and basic tics frequently precede complicated tics.
Many individuals do not require therapy if their symptoms do not interfere with their everyday lives. Some persons may be cured of their tics or no longer require medicine to control them.
TS is not a degenerative disorder (one that worsens over time), and people with TS may have excellent linguistic abilities, perseverance, creativity, empathy, and hyperfocus.
Dyslexia is a widespread learning disability that mostly affects reading, writing, and spelling. It makes learning to read and interpret words difficult.
The severity of the effects varies across individuals. The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders is often higher in those with dyslexia.
People who are dyslexic frequently have exceptional abilities in linguistic skills, long-term memory, and 3D visual thinking.